Moscovici et al (1969):
Moscovici investigated whether or not a consistent minority could influence a majority to give an incorrect answer in a visual perception task. Groups of 6 participants were asked to estimate the colour of 36 slides. All of the slides were blue, but of varying shades, and 2 of the participants were confederates of the experimenter. There were two conditions: in the consistent condition the 2 confederates consistently stated that the slides were green not blue; and in the inconsistent condition they stated the slides were green on 24 of the 36 trials, and blue on the other 12 trials. Participants in the consistent condition conformed to the minority on 8.4% of the trials (compared with 1.3% in the inconsistent condition), and 32% of participants conformed at least once.
This shows that a consistent minority can influence members of a majority to make an incorrect judgement.
Why are people influence by minorities?
The snowball effect:
The snowball effect (Van Avermaet, 1996) describes one way in which minorities convert majorities. Members of the majority slowly move towards the minority, and as the minority grows in size it gradually picks up momentum so that more and more majority members convert to the minority opinion. Eventually the minority grows into a snowball so large that it becomes the majority.
When social change occurs in a society, the attitude or opinion becomes an integral part of the society’s culture, and the source of the minority influence that led to it is generally forgotten. Very few women who vote in the UK consciously thank the Suffragettes for the fact that they can vote, rather women voting is now a normal and expected part of society. This forgetting of the source of social change is called social cryptoamnesia (Perez et al, 1995).
How do minorities become majorities?
- When a minority has an effective message, it creates conflict in the minds of the majority.
- The majority are forced to examine the minority message, and may internalise it.
- When the message is internalised by majority members, they are said to have been converted.
- The message is then passed on to many other majority members through the snowball effect until the minority becomes the majority.
- In time, the source of the message is forgotten and all that remains is the new social norm. This is called social cryptoamnseia (Perez et al, 1995).
Examples of minority influence leading to social change
Anti-apartheid in South Africa:
Many years of discrimination against black South Africans by the white government was ultimately ended by the actions of the African National Congress led by Nelson Mandela. The ANC used many techniques to get their message across in a consistent, persuasive and committed way. Nelson Mandela famously showed his own level of commitment to ending apartheid by leading the ANC when he knew he could be imprisoned for doing so, and in fact he spent 27 years in prison as a result.
In late 19th and early 20th century Britain, members of the National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies campaigned for women’s rights including the right to vote. The women were mostly middle class and educated so they were able to put forward a persuasive message. They showed commitment through their protests, in particular through their hunger strikes when imprisoned for their protests. In response the the hunger strikes, the government introduced the Cat and Mouse Act which meant that the women could be imprisoned until they had starved themselves long enough to be of concern to their health, at which point they were released and then reimprisoned once they had regained their strength, a process which was often repeated many times.
This short clip gives a nice summary of the process of normative social influence moving to informational social influence, until a critical mass is reached.
After this point the majority affect the behaviour of the remaining population through normative social influence.